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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Vol. 56, 57(2014~)
▣ 편집위원장 : 최인호
▣ 편집위원 : 정호영, 최창원, 이철영, 오세종, 김관석,
    이홍구, 송민호, 김은중, 조철훈

논문번호 :
학회지년월 : 201811
접수일자 : 2018-07-04 채택일자 : 2018-11-09
전공분야 : 기타
조 회 수 : 0
In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics,
metabolite production, methane and
substrate degradability of polyphenol rich
plant leaves and their component
complete feed blocks

Ganesh N. Aderao2, A. Sahoo1* , R. S. Bhatt2, P. K. Kumawat2 and Lalit Soni2

Background: This experiment aimed at assessing polyphenol-rich plant biomass to use in complete feed making
for the feeding of ruminants.
Methods: An in vitro ruminal evaluation of complete blocks (CFB) with (Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus nummularia leaves)
and without (Vigna sinensis hay) polyphenol rich plant leaves was conducted by applying Menke’s in vitro gas
production (IVGP) technique. A total of six substrates, viz. three forages and three CFBs were subjected to in vitro
ruminal fermentation in glass syringes to assess gas and methane production, substrate degradability, and rumen
fermentation metabolites.
Results: Total polyphenol content (g/Kg) was 163 in A. nilotica compared to 52.5 in Z. nummularia with a
contrasting difference in tannin fractions, higher hydrolysable tannins (HT) in the former (140.1 vs 2.8) and higher
condensed (CT) tannins in the later (28.3 vs 7.9). The potential gas production was lower with a higher lag phase (L)
in CT containing Z. nummularia and the component feed block. A. nilotica alone and as a constituent of CFB
produced higher total gas but with lower methane while the partitioning factor (PF) was higher in Z. nummularia
and its CFB. Substrate digestibility (both DM and OM) was lower (P < 0.001) in Z. nummularia compared to other
forages and CFBs. The fermentation metabolites showed a different pattern for forages and their CFBs. The forages
showed higher TCA precipitable N and lower acetate: propionate ratio in Z. nummularia while the related trend
was found in CFB with V. sinensis. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher (P < 0.001) in A. nilotica leaves
than V. sinensis hay and Z. nummularia leaves. It has implication on widening the forage resources and providing
opportunity to use forage biomass rich in polyphenolic constituents in judicious proportion for reducing methane
and enhancing green livestock production.
Conclusion: Above all, higher substrate degradability, propionate production, lower methanogenesis in CFB with A.
nilotica leaves may be considered useful. Nevertheless, CFB with Z. nummularia also proved its usefulness with
higher TCA precipitable N and PF. It has implication on widening the forage resources and providing opportunity
to use polyphenol-rich forage biomass for reducing methane and enhancing green livestock production.
Keywords: Polyphenol, Methane production, Fermentation metabolites, degradability
논문번호 :
학회지년월 : 201811
접수일자 : 2018-09-21 채택일자 : 2018-11-09
전공분야 : 기타
조 회 수 : 0
In vitro evaluation of nano zinc oxide
(nZnO) on mitigation of gaseous emissions

Niloy Chandra Sarker1, Faithe Keomanivong2, Md. Borhan1, Shafiqur Rahman1* and Kendall Swanson2

Background: Enteric methane (CH4) accounts for about 70% of total CH4 emissions from the ruminant animals.
Researchers are exploring ways to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants. Recently, nano zinc oxide
(nZnO) has shown potential in reducing CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from the liquid manure
under anaerobic storage conditions. Four different levels of nZnO and two types of feed were mixed with rumen fluid to
investigate the efficacy of nZnO in mitigating gaseous production.
Methods: All experiments with four replicates were conducted in batches in 250 mL glass bottles paired with
the ANKOMRF wireless gas production monitoring system. Gas production was monitored continuously for
72 h at a constant temperature of 39±1 °C in a water bath. Headspace gas samples were collected using
gas-tight syringes from the Tedlar bags connected to the glass bottles and analyzed for greenhouse gases
(CH4 and carbon dioxide-CO2) and H2S concentrations. CH4 and CO2 gas concentrations were analyzed using
an SRI-8610 Gas Chromatograph and H2S concentrations were measured using a Jerome 631X meter. At the
same time, substrate (i.e. mixed rumen fluid+ NP treatment+ feed composite) samples were collected from
the glass bottles at the beginning and at the end of an experiment for bacterial counts, and volatile fatty
acids (VFAs) analysis.
Results: Compared to the control treatment the H2S and GHGs concentration reduction after 72 h of the tested nZnO
levels varied between 4.89 to 53.65%. Additionally, 0.47 to 22.21% microbial population reduction was observed from
the applied nZnO treatments. Application of nZnO at a rate of 1000 μg g&#8722; 1 have exhibited the highest amount
of concentration reductions for all three gases and microbial population.
Conclusion: Results suggest that both 500 and 1000 μg g&#8722; 1 nZnO application levels have the potential to
reduce GHG and H2S concentrations.
Keywords: Rumen, Feed, Greenhouse gases, Nanoparticle, Concentration
논문번호 :
학회지년월 : 201810
접수일자 : 2017-11-05 채택일자 : 2018-10-06
전공분야 : 단위가축영양
조 회 수 : 10
Gliricidia leaf meal and multi-enzyme in
rabbits diet: effect on performance, blood
indices, serum metabolites and antioxidant

Olugbenga David Oloruntola1*, Johnson Oluwasola Agbede2, Simeon Olugbenga Ayodele3,
Eyanlola Soladoye Ayedun3, Olajumoke Temidayo Daramola3 and Deborah Adebukola Oloruntola4

Background: Following the ban on the importation of import-dependent fed ingredients in most developing
countries, the need to look inward for local content is now compelling. Thus, leaf meals that have phytogenic
additive potentials are envisaged will be a viable feed ingredient in rabbit diets.
Methods: The effect of dietary inclusion of gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) with or without multi-enzyme (E)
supplementation in rabbits was investigated using ninety-six 35-day old rabbits of crossbreed (Newzealand and
Chinchilla). One basal diet that met the requirements of growing rabbit was formulated (Diet 1). Thereafter, another
two diets were formulated to contain 15% GLM and 15% GLM plus multi-enzyme at 1 g/kg and designated as diets
2 and 3 respectively. The rabbits were randomly distributed into the 3 diets (32 rabbits/treatment; 4 rabbits/
replicate) and fed their respective experimental diets for 8 weeks.
Results: The body weight and daily weight gain of the rabbits fed on GLM free diet and those on GLM-based diets
(diets 1 and 2) were similar at finishing period of 63&#8211;91 day but have lower (P < 0.01) values than those rabbits fed
GLM + E based diet (diet 3) at finishing period (63&#8211;91 days) and whole fattening period (35-91 days). The apparent
dry matter and crude protein digestibility of rabbits fed control diet and those fed 15% GLM based diet were lower
(P < 0.05) than those fed 15% GLM + E-based diet. Triglycerides concentration of rabbits fed 15% GLM-based diet
without enzyme addition were lower (P < 0.05) than those observed for rabbits on the rest test diets. Cholesterol
and Low-Density Lipoprotein levels of rabbits fed 15% GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets were lower (P < 0.05)
than those fed the GLM free diet. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of rabbits fed the GLM free
diet (diet 1) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those fed the 15%GLM and 15% GLM + E-based diets.
Conclusion: Dietary inclusion of GLM at 15% of the diet did not have a negative effect on the rabbits postweaning
period (35&#8211;63 days) but will require multi-enzyme supplementation to enhance growth indices at finishing period
(63&#8211;91 day) without precipitating negative effect on the rabbits’ health status.
Keywords: Leaf meals, Rabbits, Exo-enzyme, Performance, Health status
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